This is defined as the maintenance and defense of information resources by addressing threats to information that are stored online i.e. by internetwork information systems.According to [1] Cyber security refers to the protection of everything that is potentially exposed to the Internet: our computers, smart phones and other devices; our personal information; our privacy; and our children.The Internet is an amazingly useful and versatile tool that has become indispensable for work, Education, personal entertainment, and staying connected with family and friends. Use it responsibly, while taking care to protect yourself and your data, and you will continue to find it a valuable resource


This refers to conflict and attacks that are internetwork based in other to bring down a nation’s or organizational information systems such as networks and web sites so as to achieve some political or organizational goals. They are often motivated politically. It is a threat to lives of many nationals in the world because it enhances the stealing of confidential information and can cause a major disaster in online businesses and financial institutions. It also paves way for activities supported by military organizations with the purpose to threat the survival and well-being of society/foreign entity [2].

According to [3] “Cyber warfare refers to a massively coordinated digital assault on a government by another or by large groups of citizens” It is the action by a nation-state to penetrate another nation’s computers and networks for the purposes of causing damage or disruption. But it adds that “the term cyber warfare may also be used to describe attacks between corporations.


Cyber-attack is an illegal attempt to harm someone’s computer system or the information it contains using the internet.[4]                                                                                                             Cyber-attack is intangible i.e they are crimes that occur in a virtual world. They are unlike the tangible wars that occur physically. Cyber-attack may be targeted. I.e. it may be targeted at specific persons, company or a nation. A successful attack will typically allow the attacker to gain access to the victim’s assets, allowing stealing of sensitive internal data and possibly cause disruption and denial of service in some cases. [5]

A typical example can be the actions of a jealous boyfriend spying on his girlfriend’s online activities by hacking into her social media accounts. Another example is a situation where an attacker exploits the vulnerabilities of an organization and attacks the organization by gaining an unauthorized access to their database server in which confidential documents or information is stored. Other examples of cyber-attack are listed below:

  • Mass mailing worms.
  • Trojans sent to various people via email.
  • Network attacks
  • Bypassing security mechanisms
  • Denial of Service (DOS) attacks
  • Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks

Though, the solutions to cyber-attack are not specific, this is because there are various ways through which an attack can be launched. But, some solutions are listed below:

  • Detect malware, communications and behaviour invisible to standard defense
  • Analyze the risk and characteristics of the attack and attacker
  • Adapt security automatically to provide protection
  • Respond using the insight needed to counter your specific attackers



A cybercrime is defined as an act involving the use of computers or other technologies to engage in criminal activity in a virtual setting such as the Internet. [6]

Cybercrimes share three elements:

  • Tools and techniques to perpetrate a crime
  • Approach or methodology for executing the criminal plan —known as a vector
  • Crime itself that is the end result of those plans and activities (a cybercrime is the main objective of the criminal’s activities)[7]



[1] NJ Consumer Affairs. (2013) cyber security handbook [On-line]. Available: [December 23, 2015]

[2] Isaca. (2014) cyber security fundamentals glossary [On-line] Available:

[3] F. Schreier. (2015) dcaf horizon working paper no. 7 on cyber warfare. Available:

[4] Cambridge Advanced Learners Online Dictionary. Available: [December 28, 2015]

[5] GFI white paper (2012) Targeted cyber-attacks. Available: [january 3, 2016]

[6] Tommie Singleton et al.The top 5 cybercrimes. Amaerican Institute of CPAs. New York, 2013

[7] M. Dunk (2008) cloud security. Available :



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