Here Are the New Members of the United Nations Security Council — TIME

(UNITED NATIONS) — Sweden and Kazakhstan won contested elections for coveted seats on the Security Council on Tuesday and the Netherlands and Italy ended a battle for another seat by agreeing to split the two-year term on the U.N.’s most powerful body. The U.N. General Assembly met to choose five new council members and it…

via Here Are the New Members of the United Nations Security Council — TIME

[MAN OF PEACE; REST IN PEACE] ADIEU MY DEAREST BROTHER

He is a friend, a brother, an ally. An agent of peace. I can’t still believe that our brother is gone. Life is indeed illusion. Words alone cannot express our taught and feelings. Though the song is ended but the melody lingers on.you will forever be remembered for your positive contributions to humanity. Your living love remains with us.                                      Life is indeed a phantasmagoria because in the long run we are all dead. Rest in peace my brother, friend, and mentor.     He is John Paul Ojoajogwu Usman [MAN OF PEACE, REST IN PEACE]                            ADIEU MY DEAREST BROTHER.

 

CYBER SECURITY, CYBER WARFARE,CYBER ATTACK, AND CYBER CRIME.

  1. CYBER SECURITY

This is defined as the maintenance and defense of information resources by addressing threats to information that are stored online i.e. by internetwork information systems.According to [1] Cyber security refers to the protection of everything that is potentially exposed to the Internet: our computers, smart phones and other devices; our personal information; our privacy; and our children.The Internet is an amazingly useful and versatile tool that has become indispensable for work, Education, personal entertainment, and staying connected with family and friends. Use it responsibly, while taking care to protect yourself and your data, and you will continue to find it a valuable resource

  1. CYBER WARFARE

This refers to conflict and attacks that are internetwork based in other to bring down a nation’s or organizational information systems such as networks and web sites so as to achieve some political or organizational goals. They are often motivated politically. It is a threat to lives of many nationals in the world because it enhances the stealing of confidential information and can cause a major disaster in online businesses and financial institutions. It also paves way for activities supported by military organizations with the purpose to threat the survival and well-being of society/foreign entity [2].

According to [3] “Cyber warfare refers to a massively coordinated digital assault on a government by another or by large groups of citizens” It is the action by a nation-state to penetrate another nation’s computers and networks for the purposes of causing damage or disruption. But it adds that “the term cyber warfare may also be used to describe attacks between corporations.

3.  CYBER ATTACK

Cyber-attack is an illegal attempt to harm someone’s computer system or the information it contains using the internet.[4]                                                                                                             Cyber-attack is intangible i.e they are crimes that occur in a virtual world. They are unlike the tangible wars that occur physically. Cyber-attack may be targeted. I.e. it may be targeted at specific persons, company or a nation. A successful attack will typically allow the attacker to gain access to the victim’s assets, allowing stealing of sensitive internal data and possibly cause disruption and denial of service in some cases. [5]

A typical example can be the actions of a jealous boyfriend spying on his girlfriend’s online activities by hacking into her social media accounts. Another example is a situation where an attacker exploits the vulnerabilities of an organization and attacks the organization by gaining an unauthorized access to their database server in which confidential documents or information is stored. Other examples of cyber-attack are listed below:

  • Mass mailing worms.
  • Trojans sent to various people via email.
  • Network attacks
  • Bypassing security mechanisms
  • Denial of Service (DOS) attacks
  • Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks

Though, the solutions to cyber-attack are not specific, this is because there are various ways through which an attack can be launched. But, some solutions are listed below:

  • Detect malware, communications and behaviour invisible to standard defense
  • Analyze the risk and characteristics of the attack and attacker
  • Adapt security automatically to provide protection
  • Respond using the insight needed to counter your specific attackers

 

  1. CYBER CRIME

A cybercrime is defined as an act involving the use of computers or other technologies to engage in criminal activity in a virtual setting such as the Internet. [6]

Cybercrimes share three elements:

  • Tools and techniques to perpetrate a crime
  • Approach or methodology for executing the criminal plan —known as a vector
  • Crime itself that is the end result of those plans and activities (a cybercrime is the main objective of the criminal’s activities)[7]

 

REFERENCES

[1] NJ Consumer Affairs. (2013) cyber security handbook [On-line]. Available: http://www.njconsumeraffairs.gov/News/Brochures/Cyber-Security-Handbook.pdf. [December 23, 2015]

[2] Isaca. (2014) cyber security fundamentals glossary [On-line] Available:http://www.isaca.org/knowledgecenter/documents/glossary/cybersecurity_fundamentals_glossary.pdf

[3] F. Schreier. (2015) dcaf horizon working paper no. 7 on cyber warfare. Available: http://www.dcaf.ch

[4] Cambridge Advanced Learners Online Dictionary. Available: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cyberattack.html [December 28, 2015]

[5] GFI white paper (2012) Targeted cyber-attacks. Available: http://www.gfi.com/whitepapers/cyber-attacks.pdf [january 3, 2016]

[6] Tommie Singleton et al.The top 5 cybercrimes. Amaerican Institute of CPAs. New York, 2013

[7] M. Dunk (2008) cloud security. Available :http://cloudsecurity.trendmicro.com/us/technology-innovation/cyber-security

 

TELECOMMUNICATION SCIENCE… A look at some antenna concepts in TCS301(wireless communications and antenna concepts).

Some Selected Calculation Questions and Solutions

 On TCS301 by A.A Otuoze

  1. Given a wireless access point with 150mW of output power connected through a 100 foot cable with 6dB of loss with a gain of 9dBi. A, calculate the transmit power. B, if 30dBm is given as a transmit power and 4dB loss. Find the Gain. C, what is the Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP) of the antenna?

Solutions

A, Power output (Po) =150mW, Loss=6dB, Gain=9dBi

Transmit power (Pt) = 10×log (Po)

Pt=10×log(150mW) = 21.76dBm.

B, to find the Gain at 30dBm transmit power we must first calculate the EIRP of the antenna because EIRP=transmit power-Loss+Gain=Pt-L+G

Therefore we have to find EIRP which is on question C

C, EIRP=Pt-L+G

EIRP= 21.76dBm-6dB+9dBi

EIRP=24.76dBm

B, if Pt=30dBm, Loss=4dB, Gain=?

From EIRP=Pt-L+G, we can express G=EIRP-Pt+L

G=24.76dBm-30dBm+4dB

G= -1.24dBi

  1. Given an access point with an output power of 100mW connected through a cable with a loss of 2dB to an antenna with gain of 11dBi. What is the EIRP in mW.

Soln

Power output (Po)=100mW, Loss (L)=2dBi, Gain (G)=11dBi, EIRP=?

EIRP=Pt-L+G where Pt=10×log (Po)

Pt=10×log (100mW) =20dBm

EIRP=20dBm-2dB+11dBi

EIRP=29dBm

EIRP in mW=10ˆ2.9mW

 

  1. An antenna receives 60mW from a transmitted power of 100mW of a wireless AP. Find the loss.

Pt=100mW, Po=60mW, Loss=Pt-Po

Pt=10*log(100mW)=20dBm

Po=10*log(60mW)=17.78dBm

Loss=20dBm-17.78dBm=2.22dBm

Loss in dB= 2.22-30=-27.78dB

 

A Sentence is a Complete Thought

Live to Write - Write to Live

diagramA sentence is a complete thought, containing both subject and verb. The subject is what the sentence is about, and the verb is what the subject is doing.

Here’s an example of a sentence: I write.

“I” is the subject, and “write” is what I do.

Simple as that. (“Simple as that” is not a complete thought; it’s a sentence fragment, the sort of thing your English teacher would murder with red ink, but which creative writers can get away with when they know what they’re doing. “Simple as that” has neither a subject nor a verb. It’s a modifying phrase, and phrases aren’t sentences at all; they’re not even clauses.)

Sentences come in several varieties determined by the kind and number of the clauses it contains.

A clause is either independent, containing both a subject and verb of its own, or dependent, meaning it has to lean on…

View original post 496 more words

Fight And Trouble… by Engr A.O Otuoze

They say ‘those who fight and run away live to fight another day’ but I found that ‘those who run away from fight live to witness another fight’. That way, you will never have to fight not meaning you don’t have the strenght rather merely reserving it for some unforseen emergencies. Always keep away from troubles… Engr A.O Otuoze