TELECOMMUNICATION SCIENCE… A look at some antenna concepts in TCS301(wireless communications and antenna concepts).

Some Selected Calculation Questions and Solutions

 On TCS301 by A.A Otuoze

  1. Given a wireless access point with 150mW of output power connected through a 100 foot cable with 6dB of loss with a gain of 9dBi. A, calculate the transmit power. B, if 30dBm is given as a transmit power and 4dB loss. Find the Gain. C, what is the Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP) of the antenna?


A, Power output (Po) =150mW, Loss=6dB, Gain=9dBi

Transmit power (Pt) = 10×log (Po)

Pt=10×log(150mW) = 21.76dBm.

B, to find the Gain at 30dBm transmit power we must first calculate the EIRP of the antenna because EIRP=transmit power-Loss+Gain=Pt-L+G

Therefore we have to find EIRP which is on question C


EIRP= 21.76dBm-6dB+9dBi


B, if Pt=30dBm, Loss=4dB, Gain=?

From EIRP=Pt-L+G, we can express G=EIRP-Pt+L


G= -1.24dBi

  1. Given an access point with an output power of 100mW connected through a cable with a loss of 2dB to an antenna with gain of 11dBi. What is the EIRP in mW.


Power output (Po)=100mW, Loss (L)=2dBi, Gain (G)=11dBi, EIRP=?

EIRP=Pt-L+G where Pt=10×log (Po)

Pt=10×log (100mW) =20dBm



EIRP in mW=10ˆ2.9mW


  1. An antenna receives 60mW from a transmitted power of 100mW of a wireless AP. Find the loss.

Pt=100mW, Po=60mW, Loss=Pt-Po




Loss in dB= 2.22-30=-27.78dB



A Sentence is a Complete Thought

Live to Write - Write to Live

diagramA sentence is a complete thought, containing both subject and verb. The subject is what the sentence is about, and the verb is what the subject is doing.

Here’s an example of a sentence: I write.

“I” is the subject, and “write” is what I do.

Simple as that. (“Simple as that” is not a complete thought; it’s a sentence fragment, the sort of thing your English teacher would murder with red ink, but which creative writers can get away with when they know what they’re doing. “Simple as that” has neither a subject nor a verb. It’s a modifying phrase, and phrases aren’t sentences at all; they’re not even clauses.)

Sentences come in several varieties determined by the kind and number of the clauses it contains.

A clause is either independent, containing both a subject and verb of its own, or dependent, meaning it has to lean on…

View original post 496 more words


The terms ‘values’ and ‘morality’ has played a major and important role in the life of our forefathers. In other to live a peaceful and harmonious life today, values and morality should be involved in our daily activities. Moral issues arise in dispute situations that is, in a conflict phenomenon. And moral issues can best be resolved by finding out our values and evaluating these values with knowledge and wisdom of morality. It is in view of these that the terms values, morality and moral issues will be discussed briefly in this article.
The term ‘values’ does not have a single definition because it encircle all aspects of human life since all aspects of life has its value i.e importance to human existence.
According to the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (6th edition) values involves beliefs about what is right and wrong and what is important. Values is defined as a broad preference concerning appropriate causes of action or outcomes (Wikipedia, September 2013). Values simply imply the importance, usefulness of a particular entity.
It can be deduced from the above definitions of values that values tend to influence our attitudes and behaviour. Values influence behaviour and assist to interpret and solve regular human problems for survival by comparative rankings of value. Values also enable us to set reasonable goals and objectives thereby influencing decision making since it is easy to make decisions when you know what your values are.

Morality plays a vital role in the existence of man. Morality comes from the latin word ‘moralitas’ (mores) meaning proper behaviour, goodness or excellence Wikipedia(2013). The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of English (6th edition) defines morality as the principles concerning right and wrong or good and bad behaviour . morality involves the ability to differentiate between what is good and what is bad in other to be accustomed with acceptable deeds in the society. Morality entails the ability to avoid all acts of misconduct and what should be preferred in the society.
The opposite of morality is immorality. Immorality is wrong behaviour and it include all acts of misconduct and irresponsibility. Some examples of acts of immorality include but not limited to the following: violence, killing of innocent lives, destruction of properties, stealing, armed robbery, bribery, perjury, prostitution, child abortion and suicide. The engagement of individuals in various acts of immorality listed above is a complete dereliction of duty as humans and it is as a result of gross irresponsibility.
Moral issues arise in dispute situations. It may arise within oneself or within yourself and the environment. These issues may be resolved by determining what is good, what ought to be and what humans should prefer. An example of a moral issue is the same sex marriage which has been condemned by both Christianity and islam. References to condemnation of same sex marriage popularly known as gay marriage in the bible include Romans 2:26-27 and Leviticus 18:22. The verses in the Qu’ran that comdemn same include Q7:80-82 and Q27:54-56.
There are different moral rules that can serve as guide to solve moral issues. These moral rules can facilitate a peaceful and harmonious life among humans. According to Isaac Olakanmi Abimbola (2013), these moral rules can guide human beings in their moral conduct in overlapping ways. They are religion, philosophy, culture and common sense.
An attempt has been made in this article to discuss the meaning of values, morality and moral issues. Efforts were also made to highlight some key acts of immorality which completely negates morality. The key essence of this article is to suggest that peaceful and harmonious life is possible and achievable by abiding by moral rules, living with sense of morality and knowing our values in the society.
AUGUST 2014.